in 1969, astronomers discovered that three of the giant planets, Jupiter,
Saturn, and Neptune, each radiate about twice as much energy as they receive
from the Sun. Those planets each contain a powerful energy source which was
inexplicable until J. Marvin Herndon, pictured at left, demonstrated in 1992 the
feasibility of natural, nuclear fission reactors as the energy source for those
initially considered thermal neutron reactors
hydrogen, but soon realized that without hydrogen, the reactors would function
quite well as fast neutron breeder reactors.
Aware that the uranium resides almost
exclusively in the alloy portion of the Abee enstatite chondrite, the part
corresponding to the Earth's core, in 1993 Herndon published a scientific
article, entitled "Feasibility of a
nuclear fission reactor at the center of the Earth as the energy source for the
geomagnetic field" in the Japanese Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity
followed that a year later with an article in the Proceedings of
the Royal Society of London . Both articles, like his 1996
article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA  were based upon calculations
Herndon made using Fermi's nuclear reactor theory. These began a series of
step-by-step developments which have carried forward to the present [5-11] and
have resulted in a fundamentally new understanding of georeactor structure, georeactor dynamics and georeactor generation
of Earth's magnetic field.
For more than
thirty years, scientists and engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have
worked to develop, improve, and validate software for numerically simulating the
operation of different types of nuclear reactors. Minor modifications were made
to the software allowing numerical simulation of Earth's georeactor, which J. M.
Herndon published with D. F. Hollenbach in 2001 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
simulation calculations, published in 2001, demonstrated that that Earth's
georeactor is capable of functioning over the entire period which the Earth has
existed, 4.5 billion years, and is capable of producing power at the same levels
estimated to be necessary for powering the geomagnetic field. The calculations
also showed that the georeactor would operate as a fast neutron breeder reactor
and that it must have some inherent mechanism for regulating operating power and
for removing fission products. Moreover, the helium fission products from the
georeactor turned out to occur in the same range of compositions as the
deep-Earth helium found in oceanic basalt .
Evidence for Georeactor Existence
Since the late 1960s,
scientists throughout the world have found traces of helium in volcanic
basalt that comes from within the Earth. Two isotopes of helium are observed,
helium of mass 3 and helium of mass 4. Helium-4 was not a surprise because
helium-4 is a product of the
natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium.
Helium-3, however, was a great mystery as scientists were unaware of any
mechanism for major production of helium-3.
knowledge of an adequate deep-Earth production mechanism, scientists, for more
than thirty years, have assumed that the observed helium-3 is a relic left over
from planetary formation 4.5 billion years ago. To explain the helium found in
volcanic basalt, scientists have also had to assume that about 9 times
as much helium-4 from radioactive decay had to have been mixed with the assumed
primordial helium-3 in such a way as to give a rather narrow range of
compositions, shown statistically for 95% confidence in table at right. But then along came the georeactor numerical simulations.
The figure at left shows
more precise helium fission product data for two numerical simulations,
published in 2003 by J. Marvin Herndon in
the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
. for comparison, two bands are shown representing the ranges of
helium ratios for mid-oceanic ridges and abandoned oceanic ridges. The
arrow shown points to the present age of the Earth. TW stands for
million-megawatts, the unit of georeactor power.
Note the upward trend in the helium
isotope ratios with the passage of time. The increase in the He-3/He-4
ratio is a consequence of the decrease in helium-4 from radioactive
decay as the uranium fuel is consumed by nuclear fission. High He-3/He-4
ratios, some as high as 37 relative to air, are observed in Hawaiian and
Icelandic basalts. These high ratios are an indication that the end of
the georeactor's life is approaching, which means as well the end of the
geomagnetic field, but the time frame is unknown .
The helium coming out
of the Earth is strong evidence for the georeactor's existence. See
reference  to download an excellent description of the helium
problem solved. Ultimately, other evidence for georeactor existence may
arise, such as seismic evidence and antineutrino evidence. At present,
resolution of earthquake waves is not sufficient to reveal the
georeactor. Detecting antineutrinos from georeactor fission products
holds potential, but technological advances are necessary.
Antineutrino measurements to date have not refuted the
existence of the georeactor , but set an upper limit of 3TW
(terawatts) on its energy production. That 3TW does not include the
contribution the from radioactive decay energy of the georeactor's
associated uranium (and possibly thorium).
Georeactor Origin of
the Earth's Magnetic Field
more than a century, since Fredrick Gauss, scientists have known that
the seat of the geomagnetic field lies at or near the center of the
Earth. Because of energy-draining interactions with the solar wind and
with the matter of Earth, scientists also know that there is an energy
source, residing at or near the center of earth, continuously supplying
energy to sustain the magnetic field; otherwise the field would soon
In 1939 Walter Elsasser proposed that the Earth's
magnetic field is produced by a convection-driven dynamo mechanism in
Earth's fluid core. Elsasser envisioned convection motions in the fluid
core being twisted by planetary rotation into a dynamo, essentially a
magnetic amplifier. In 1993, when J. Marvin Herndon demonstrated the
feasibility of a nuclear fission reactor at Earth's center, he
envisioned the georeactor as being the dynamo's energy source.
Beginning in 2007, J. Marvin Herndon began to
discovered reasons why convection is physically impossible in the
Earth's fluid core, and proposed instead that the Earth's magnetic field
is generated, not in the fluid core, but in the georeactor
fission-product sub-shell [8-12], illustrated at left.
There are two reasons why convection is physically
impossible in the Earth's fluid core. but not in the georeactor
First, for long-term stable convection, the top of the fluid
has to be cooler than the bottom. Thus, heat brought to the top must be
efficiently removed. The Earth's core is covered with a thick,
thermally-insulating blanket, the silicate mantle, which prevents
efficient heat loss [8, 9].
Second, convection is physically
impossible in the Earth's fluid core [11, 12]. J. Marvin Herndon discovered
that, because of compression by the weight of the earth above, the
matter at the base of the fluid core is too dense to float to the top as
a result of thermal expansion. Convection under those circumstances is
physically impossible. Herndon also discovered that the Rayleigh Number,
often used to justify convection, is inappropriate for the core, as the
Rayleigh Number was derived for an incompressible fluid, a fluid of
constant density, of which the core is not. The base of the core is
about 23% denser than the top.
The impediments to convection in the
Earth's fluid core, as noted by Herndon [11, 12], do not exist within the
It is expected that convective
motions within the electrically
conducting fluid (or slurry)
sub-shell will interact with the
Coriolis forces produced by
planetary rotation and act like a
dynamo, a magnetic amplifier, as
illustrated at right. And, unlike in Earth’s fluid
core, the georeactor sub-shell
contains large amounts of
fission-produced elements which beta
decay yielding electrons for
generating magnetic seed-fields for
amplification. The georeactor unit
thus acts as both the energy source
and the operant fluid for generating
the Earth’s magnetic field by dynamo
Even though variations in nuclear fuel
occur over time, Herndon's georeactor uniquely is expected to be
self-regulating through establishing a balance between heat-production
and actinide settling-out . In the micro-gravity environment at the
center of Earth, georeactor heat production that is too energetic would
be expected to cause actinide sub-core disassembly, mixing actinide
elements with neutron-absorbers of the sub-shell, quenching the nuclear
fission chain reaction. But as the denser actinide elements begin to
settle-out of the mix, the chain reaction would re-start, ultimately
establishing a balance, an equilibrium between heat-production and
actinide settling-out, a self-regulating mechanism.
Rapid Magnetic Field Changes
Earth's magnetic field has been decreasing in intensity over the past
hundred years. Moreover, as shown in the figure at left, the North
Magnetic Pole has recently moved at a rapid rate toward Siberia. These
observations are taken by some as a possible indication of a
forth-coming magnetic reversal, potentially the first in some 700,000
External influences, Herndon
suggests, intermittently disrupt the stability of georeactor geomagnetic
field generation and possibly lead to a magnetic reversal. For example,
electrical currents induced by superintense solar outbursts would cause heating in the georeactor
sub-shell, possibly disrupting convection. Severe Earth trauma might
also disrupt disrupt convection in the georeactor's sub-shell.
Because the georeactor mass is about one ten-millionth that of the fluid
core, such changes might occur quickly.
Origin of Planetary
active internally generated magnetic fields have been detected in six
planets (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and in
one satellite (Jupiter’s moon Ganymede).
Magnetized surface areas of Mars and the Moon indicate the former
existence of internally generated magnetic fields in those bodies.
Herndon has presented evidence attesting to the commonality of matter in
the Solar System, which is like that of the deep-interior of Earth, and
has made the suggestion [9, 10] that planetary magnetic fields
generally arise from the same georeactor-type mechanism which Herndon
[8, 9] has suggested powers and generates the Earth’s magnetic field.
Origin of Earth's Magnetic Field
(click here) This video is
best "watched in high quality"
as it contains an experimental
demonstration of why long-term
convection, and hence
dynamo-action, in the fluid core
De-bunking Copy-cat Georeactors
After publication of Herndon's scientific articles on Earth's nuclear
georeactor [1-9], several "copy-cat" georeactors were published. Copy-cat georeactors,
purportedly operating at places within the deep-interior of Earth other
than at its center, are all absent of a mechanism for preventing the
inevitable meltdown to the center of Earth and are absent a mechanism
for self-regulation as disclosed by Herndon for the georeactor .
Georeactor as Hotspot Heat Source
Hotspots power the volcanic activity that is
continuing to produce basalt-lava that forms the Hawaiian Islands and
Iceland. Seismic tomography appears to image vertical, column-like heat
paths extending to the edge of the core for each of those hotspots.
Recently, Norwegian scientists, R. Mjelde and J. I. Faleide ,
discovered that basalt eruptions in the Hawaiian Islands and in Iceland
varied significantly over time. Remarkably, the pulse-like variations in
productivity and time in each case were synchronized, as if being
orchestrated by a common mechanism, even though the two hotspots are
located on opposite sides of the globe. Subsequent work by Mjelde,
Wessel, and Müller  suggests the co-pulsations are a global hotspot
phenomenon. The commonality appears to represent changes in heat from
the Earth’s core. Georeactor-heat produced by nuclear fission can be
variable, unlike heat from the natural decay of long-lived radioactive
isotopes, which is essentially constant, decreasing slightly over
very-long periods of time.
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(click here for pdf)
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(click here for pdf)
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